Today is not possible without tomorrow. But today only his memories remain. The memories of yesterday are forever in the mind. Many memories of small and big cities are also in my mind, but there is no equal to a historical site like Sangrur in Punjab.
Brief History of Sangrur
The erstwhile Jind principality is now a district in the state of Haryana. The city of Sangrur was once its capital. Now Sangrur is a district in the state of Punjab.
The history of Jind takes us back to ancient times. It is named after the goddess Jayanti or Jayanti Devi, the goddess of victory. It was formerly called Jaintapuri. During the Mahabharata period, the Pandavas built a temple here in honor of Jainti Devi. He used to come to this temple to pray for victory in his war against the Kauravas. From the pre-Mahabharata period to the 19th century, the geography of Jind has witnessed many changes. Finally a state called Jind was created which became ungoverned to live. His capital was built at Sangrur.
Jind was the second largest state among the three Phulkia states, named after their only ancestor Phool. The other two states are Patiala and Nabha among the three Phulkia states. The Phulkia rulers are descendants of Bhatti Rajputs who migrated to Jaisalmer from Rajasthan during the severe famine.
Maharaja Gajpat Singh of the Phulkia Sikh group, who was one of the Sikh tribunals, created the state of Jind in 1773. Maharaja Gajpat Singh received this land of his share after defeating the Afghan governor of Sirhind, Jain Khan. This part of the land includes Jind, Safidon, parts of Kurukshetra, Panipat and Karnal. In 1862, the Malguzars of the Delhi Sultanate under the leadership of Maharaj Shah Alam conferred the title of King on Gajpat Singh.
Later, the area of Jind state was extended from the Sutlej River in the north and Gohana in Rohtak in the south. Raja Gajpat Singh ruled here from 1772 to 14. Subsequently, Raja Bhag Singh ruled from 14 to 1819 and Raja Fateh Singh from 1819 to 1822. Raja Sangat Singh, son of Raja Fateh Singh, ruled from 1819 to 1822. He shifted his capital from Jind to the newly established Sangrur in 1730.
Etymology of the word sangrur
According to local records, Sangrur village was founded about 600 years ago by a Jat named Sangu. Till 14 CE, it was a part of Nabha princely state. Due to the rift between Maharaja Gajpat Singh of Jind state and Maharaja Hamir Singh of Nabha princely state, Jind princely army established its control over Amloh, Bhadas and Sangrur. Maharaja Hamir Singh was arrested. Later, after the intervention of the Maharaja of Patiala, the princely state of Jind freed him. Bhadas and Amloh villages were returned. But he kept Sangrur with himself.
Capital of princely state of jind
Sangrur has been the capital of the princely state of Jind since 1730. But the coronation is still held in Jind, which is his ancestral holy place.
After Raja Swaroop Singh, his son Raja Raghubir Singh succeeded him, who took the throne from 18 to 14. His son Balbir Singh died during his lifetime. For this reason, his grandson Maharaja Ranbir Singh took the throne from 14 to 1949. After him Maharaja Rajbir Singh became king. After his reign, Jind princely state was merged with Pepsu (Patiala and East Punjab State Union). Further, Pepsu was once again merged into the united Punjab of the Indian Union. Later, they were divided into Jind and Sangrur. Jind became a part of Haryana and Sangrur became a part of Punjab.
Maharaja Raghubir Singh developed Sangrur as the capital of a progressive and distinct state. He was so diligent and enthusiastic that he traveled far and wide to collect suggestions and ideas to build an ideal capital. In the year 180, he visited Jaipur in disguise to study the outline of the charming city of Jaipur. Finally in 185, he planned his capital and started his work. The best architects of that period like Sardar Ram Singh were appointed for this task. Sardar Ram Singh also designed the Amritsar Khalsa College in Amritsar. In addition, he also planned a section of the Buckingham Palace in London and several such structures.
Famous great men
Many residents of Sangrur have served in the 13th Punjab Battalion of the Indian Army. This battalion was formerly the first Jind infantry or infantry. The city of Sangrur has been the city of many great brave fighters and commanders. Kahan Singh, Ratan Singh, Gurnam Singh, Natha Singh and General Ghulam Beg Khan are some of the heroes.
People here were trained to engage in gainful employment. People here used to keep sword, gun and pen together.
Scenic heritage of Sangrur
This city is a historical center that is a paradise for tourists, researchers, historians, photographers and bloggers interested in historical heritage.
There were four entrances around the city of Sangrur. Their names were Patiala Gate, Nabha Gate, Tsunami Gate and Dhuri Gate. These names were placed on top of the nearby towns where they could be reached by a passage through these gates. Unfortunately, not one of these four gates exists anymore.
Royal solution packages
Built outside the Nabha Gate, within this complex are the samadhis of all the rulers of the Jind state. There are mausoleums here from Maharaja Gajpat Singh to Maharaja Ranbir Singh and all the nobles of the princely state. The specialty of these mausoleums is that their top appears to be similar to a temple’s crest. The sloping roofs of these structures also resemble the structures of a coastal region.
Bansar Bagh Baradari and Durbar
Since the time of the Maharajas, Bansar Bagh was a beautiful rest garden ornamented with ornamental flowers. It has a Baradari ie meeting which is surrounded by a stream.
This garden was built for the recreational sports of the royal family. There is a majestic Baradari in the middle of the gardens of this complex. This Bardari is inspired by a similar Baradari built in Dinanagar by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Maharaja Ranjit Singh gave a gift to the princely state of Jind, Dinadnagar. Let me remind you that Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s mother was the daughter of Maharaja Jind, who was married in Shukrachariya Misal.
This Varsati Clock tower is built in the year 180.
This arsenal was used as a repository of ammunition and other war equipment of the princely state of Jind.
Nihang Singh Wala Gurudwara
An old mosque was used to pray during the First World War. It was converted into Nihang Singh Wala Gurudwara after 1949.
A rail locator was also built in 1905.
Jind Cooperative Bank
Jind Cooperative Bank was established in 1922. An ancient stone block at the time of its inauguration in 1922 is still present here. When the state of Jind was merged into Pepsu (Union of Patiala and East Punjab States) when it was registered in India in 1919, this building was presented to the State Bank of Patiala. After the merger of associate state banks, a branch of State Bank of India is now functioning in this building. Located in Bara Chowk in the heart of the city, this branch is going to celebrate its establishment in the year 2022.
The Veterinary Hospital was built in 1910 for the treatment of horses and elephants of the royal family. The complex was also used as a refugee camp for the families who migrated from Pakistan in 1919. The public Sewal Hospital in the city is also a part of the coronation of Maharaja George V.
The structure of the Governor Raj High School building is also a heritage. It was once the orphanage of the princely state of Jind.
The remains of this fort can be seen near the Banasar Bagh complex. According to the residents of this place, this fort was built around the year 1865 to 1818 during the reign of Maharaja Gajpat Singh.
Badrukhan Fort and Bagriari Haveli
The main reason for the increasing powers of the princely state of Jind during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh is Bibi Kaur, the mother of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who is also the daughter of Maharaja Gajpat Singh of the princely state of Jind. According to popular legends, Badrukhan is believed to be a village near the birthplace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. There is a fort of the royal family of Jind state.
According to the stories, when Bibi Kaur was born, Bagdari Haveli’s brother Guddar Singh was invited to bless her. But the plan was to bury that newborn baby. Then Bhai Guddar Singh urged the king not to do so. Later that same girl was going to give birth to the best warrior of Punjab. In fact, Bibi Kaur later became the mother of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Bagriyan Haveli is an ancient gurdwara. Once upon a time, Guru Hargobind ji blessed the langar service. Even today, food is cooked on wet green wood in this langar.
Raj Rajeshwari Temple
In front of the fort is the temple of Goddess Kali Devi. The idol of Goddess Kali Devi inside the temple is made in the same Kali rock as in Kali Bari in Kolkata.
Gurudwara nankiana sahib
The sixth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Hargobind, stayed at Gurdwara Nankiana Sahib. There is still an ancient Karer tree, from which the Guru Ji tied his horse and rested it in his shade. This tree is worshiped here.
Wadda Ghallughara reminds us of the gruesome massacre of unarmed Sikhs in the village of Kup Rohira. This souvenir is located near the Male Kotla tehsil of Sangrur.
Sangrur Heritage Conservation Society
This institution was established on 26 January 2014. Its aim was to preserve and restore Sangrur so that this city could reclaim its ancient glory and beauty. It is a non-profit organization. Its fields are, conservation of heritage, awareness campaign, promotion of art, music and poetry, heritage of music players, young writers, handicraft and now tourist development and promotion.
In order to provide new heights to the world of words, notes and art in this green region, this organization organizes Heritage and Literature Festival.
How to reach
Sangrur is well connected by road from Chandigarh, Delhi, Bhatinda and Ludhiana. The city is located on the Chandigarh-Bhatinda National Highway and the Delhi-Jalandar Highway.
Sangrur is connected to Delhi and Ludhiana by rail route.
This is a guest travel memoir. It is written by Nawaldeep Thareja.
Nawaldeep Thareja is a textile engineer educated in Sangrur. Under his business, he has to travel to many such places in India, about which people do not know much. He has a special interest in taking photographs of various artifacts and architectural gems of India. Among them, the princely states are very dear to him. In December 2014, in the heritage festival of Sangrur city, he exhibited his photographs. Be sure to check out his Handel ‘Bahurupiya’ in Instagram.
This edition has been composed under the guidance of Shri Karanvir Singh Sibiya. Mr. Karanvir Singh is the principal founder of the Sibia Sangrur Heritage Preservation Society. His main goal is to put Sangrur on the map of India’s heritage. From them you [email protected] Can contact at
Translation: Madhumita Tamhane