There are three main forms of Hindustani music – folk music, classical music and ecclesiastical music.
The word ‘Lok’ is derived from the Sanskrit ‘Lokdarshana’ metal in the word ‘ghan’, which means ‘to see’. This word has been used in many places in the Rig Veda in the sense of ordinary people.
In the words of Dr. Vasudevarsharan Agrawal, “Lok is the Mahasamudra of our life, in which the past, future and present are stored. The folk is the supreme Creator for the ancient human.
Dr. Hazariprasad Dwivedi has taken the meaning of the word ‘Lok’ from the entire population spread in the cities and villages, not from the district or village, which is used to a more simple and artificial life than those who are considered sophisticated, interested and cultured.
Dr. Kunjbihari Das has given a definition of folklore, saying, “Folk music is a spontaneous expression of the life of those who live in a more or less primitive state outside of cultured and well-known influences. This literature is often oral and is traditional. “
It is believed that natural, natural folk arts first stems, they have evolved in traditional form and have become classical in nature due to their highest quality.
Folklore poetic rhyme filled with laughter, melody, rhythm-laced, emerged from the heart floor, absolutely delightful. Visible symbols of unity in diversity. Different languages, dialects different, but almost similar in content, tone and rhythm. Listening to his miniature tunes, this utterance about ‘Bihari Satsai’ is easily echoed in the mind.
“Satsaiya’s double, as the sailor’s arrows, look small in sight, make serious wounds।”
Truth be told, these folk songs are an invaluable treasure of our literature. Our history is peeped from within them. They are truly mirrors of our social life. History researchers, if we examine the material contained in these folklore, select the appropriate analysis and use them as expected, then our history will become more lively, balanced and all-round.
The unique heritage of Indian culture – folklore. The expiration period of poetry is spring with the nights of Chait, so the hypnotism of Shringar increases. This is the reason that Chait month has been given a meaningful noun of ‘Madhumas’. Chait month is as pleasant for the coincidences as it is sad for the distraught beings.
Mahakavi Kalidas, describing Chait’s beautiful evening, auspicious moonlight and the nightmarish tone of the Nightingale, says in the ‘Ritambara’, ‘Breathtaking evenings filled with vasantika sushma of Chaitra month, Chhatni Chandni, koel ki kuka, fragrant wind, drunken thunderous humming And distillation at night – these are the chemicals that awaken the dressing.
Seeing the importance of the month of Chaitha, a special music has been composed in Indian folk for this month, which is called Chaiti. Shringaric compositions are sung in Chaiti. There are beautiful plans of both coincidence and vipralambha in the songs of Chaiti.
It is clear that the month of Chait is very difficult for the Virhinis due to the presence of the grooming sentiment in the spring. In such a situation, even if the beloved’s wish comes, he may get some rest, because Chait is such a productive month which increases the pain of dear-disconnection even more. ” Ayal chait utpatiya ho rama, na bheje patiya।”
A teenager enters puberty by seeing the bride, but her beloved does not return in the month of Chait, it gives her a great affliction- “Chait mas jovana phulayal ho rama, le sai nahin aayal.” If sweetheart does not come for the lovers in the intoxicating month of unruly Chait, then what will come later? In fact, this honeymoon is the month of union – “Chait beti jayatai ho rama, then drank ki aayatai. ” Virhini sends a message to her beloved – Tesu has bloomed in the forest in Chait month. The eyebrows are taking its juice. Why are you giving me this grief? Because while waiting for you, I have lost my eyes while weeping from disconnected sorrow.
Various forms of love have been expressed in Chaiti songs. Among them, the story of Sankarar Shringar is also written in ragas. Somewhere there is a description of Krishna asking for Gurus from the Gawalins who sell curd by placing Matka on the head. Somewhere there is a love affair of Krishna and Radha, and somewhere the ideal love of Rama-Sita is love. Somewhere there is a joyous celebration of Dasharathanandan’s birth, then somewhere these songs depict the eternal activities of daily life. In addition to this, in addition to the picture-bizarre story-themes and sentiments, the evils of social life have also been depicted. A Chaiti song depicts the irony of child marriage –
“Ram Chhotka Balamua Bada Nee Lage Ho Rama
Korwa is Rama all over Anchara Orai Sulaibi
Covering the Anchara.
Rama karva pherat pachhuwa ghi gile ho rama
Susuki-Suski Rowe Sirhanwa Ho Rama।”
So many poets have mentioned the moonlight of Chait somewhere. Chaiti songs are also no exception to this-
“Chandni Chitwa Churave Ho Rama, Chait Ke Ratia
Madhutu Madhur-Madhur Ras Gholai, Madhur Pawan Alsave Ho Rama, Ratiya of Chait।”
The form of Lord Krishna is depicted in a Chaiti song- Kanha Charave Dhenu Gaia Ho Rama, Jamuna Kinarwa।
This implies that the inclusion of different scripts is found in Chaiti songs. These songs have the unique beauty of springtime fun and iridescent feelings. The spontaneity spilling from their emotions makes people spellbound.
Chaiti: A genre of folk music that is very popular in both folk and classical genres.
Folk has its own different colors and those who like them also have their own distinct class of folk music, irrespective of the region, they have a rich treasure of songs suited to the seasons, this thing is just a matter of blindness One such genre of folk music is ‘Chaiti’ which enjoys the most popularity of the entire Awadhi-Bhojpuri region of North India and Bhojpuri-Mithila region of Bihar. From the Chaitra month of the Indian or Hindu calendar, the Mahafil is decorated in the village’s chaupal and the singing of ‘Chaiti’ songs, sung in shringar and devotional rasa in a special traditional tune, continues till late night.
When women or men sing it solo, it is called ‘TealIt is said that, but when it is sung by a group or group,ChaitaIt is said. There is another type of singing which is called ‘Ghats‘ They say . The tune of ‘Ghato’ changes slightly from ‘Chaiti’. Its lift is very high and only the male section sing in the group. Sometimes it is divided into two parties by question-answering or it is also presented as a competition. him ‘Chaita DangalIt is said.
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The theme of ‘Chaiti’ songs sung during the summer season is predominantly devotional and adorned.
According to the Indian Panchang, the new year begins with Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. This is also the time for the new crop to come home, whose euphoria is manifested in ‘Chaiti’. Chaitra Navratri begins on the day of Pratipada and the festival of Rama-Janmotsav is celebrated on the day of Naumi. In ‘Chaiti’, the theme of Rama’s birth is cosmic.
Apart from this, the depiction of the heroine of the heroine whose husband is in the curtain in this madhumas is also visible in these songs.
The literature aspect of some Chaiti songs is so strong that the listener is bound in hypnosis of music and literature.
See the use of ornaments in a teal of folk music scholar Vindhyavasini Devi – ‘Moonlight Chitwa Churawe Ho Rama, Chait Ke Ratiya….‘The make-up side of the next line of this song is unique, -‘Madhutu madhur-madhur rasa ghola, madhur pavan alsave ho rama ……‘. The rhyme of Chaiti songs has also wooed the saint poets. That is why saints like Kabirdas also composed Nirguna posts in Chaiti style – “Meet with Piya Hum Jaib Ho Rama, Atlas Lehenga Kusum Rang Saari Pahir-Pahir Gun Gaab Ho Rama।”
Kabir has one more such nirgun teal as follows – ‘How to become a gentleman home, Jaabe Ho Rama…‘ (Kabir)
Bharatamuni’s treatise on the performing arts – ‘Natyashastra’ is considered to be the fifth Veda. In verse 57 of the Natya Shastra, the fifth chapter, the author acknowledges that scripture is introduced only by tying the elements present in public life into rules. Shloka means – ‘The forms, crafts, motions and efforts of this variable and unseen world are the basic elements of scripture.’
Due to the magnetic properties of the rhythm side in the folk form of Chaiti songs, it was able to find this place in sub-classical music. In the folk tradition, Chaiti is sung in the Chanchar Taal of only 14, which uses Kaharwa in between. The thumri of the eastern part of the song is also composed in a 14-volume Deepchandi tala and the last part of the song uses the sound of Kaharwa. Perhaps this quality of teal may have attracted ecclesiastical singers.
Now there is talk of music side of these folk songs. That is also no less interesting. The tunes of the folk songs, their vocal structure and their rhythm have their own specialties. First, their restriction is usually confined in the midpoint, that too in the first half, the latter touches rarely. Wires and temples remain outside their periphery, with a few exceptions. Therefore, their singing is not painstaking either. As such, all the twelve vowels are used with these restrictions, but the plurality is only of pure vowels.
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When the folk takes the classical form, there is a qualitative increase in it. Chaiti Geet is an acceptable example of this. In order to get a holistic experience of the folk and ecclesiastical form of Chaiti, you must listen to Ustad Bismillah Khan’s shehnai recitation as my advice.
It is speculated that the inspiration of the raga composition may also have come from the vamps of these dynastic folk songs. This inference is confirmed by the interpretation of the raga by Matang Muni.
“YoYou sound specialist voice Swarnavarna: Ranjko Janichittanam raga: Allegedly Budhai:“
This means that the specific melodies of the folklore would have crushed the imagination of the artist and would have rendered him ‘raga’ by making him a public figure, adorned with ‘swara’ (ascension), and varna (interesting singing process). The names of some ragas such as Bhupali, Jaunpuri, Pahari etc. are a clear indication of the fact that these ragas must have been created and developed from the popular folk tunes of those places.
Another feature of Chaiti is also notable. If you do a comparative study of the vowels used in the Chaiti song and the vowels of the raga ‘Yamani Bilawal’, you will get a wonderful resemblance. In many ancient teal, the voice of ‘Bilawal’ is found, but nowadays, in most teal, the use of ‘intense medium’ gives the feel of the raga ‘Yamani Bilawal’. This example confirms Bharatmuni’s statement that on the foundation of folk arts, a grand palace of classical arts stands. If you ever lose in the vocals of the famous singer Nirmala Devi, then in her singing this teal ( ‘Ehi thiya mataiya herai….’ : Nirmala Devi)
You will be familiar here, there is a beautiful teal in the Thumri organ. In this, the folk form of Chaiti, the melodious vocals of the raga ‘Yamani Bilawal’, the magic of Deepchandi and Kaharwa Tal and the soulful voice of Nirmala Devi will be able to give you a meaningful feeling of the surroundings.
Now finally the discussion- ‘Chaiti in film music’. Teal has been used in some films. Mukesh, under the musical direction of Pandit Ravi Shankar in the film ‘Godan’, made in 1964, ‘Chaiti-‘Hi rarat rahat ho rain ho rama…. ‘ Sang It is a song sung in folk style.
In Thumri Ang, Asha Bhosle has sung teal in the film ‘Namkeen’, which has the lyrics – ‘Badi late Megha…’ | In this song, you will also get the joy of Raag Tilak Kamod. ‘Heya Zarat Rahat Din Rann…’ Film: Godan – Singer: Mukesh ‘Badi late Megha Barase Ho Rama…’ Film: Namkeen – Singer: Asha ji
Mr. Devendra Satyarthi says that folk music has its origins in ethnic music. Folk songs are the saga of our life development. They have expressed the joys and sorrows of life, the ups and downs, the ups and downs. The social customs and the evils of the evils are rooted in these folk songs. There is a depth of simple sensations and feelings in life, no one can tell to what extent it is spread. But these religious beliefs and traditions that have been in existence for centuries are alive. He is born from the depths of the heart and through the Shruti tradition, he has been making his way of development. So they have less logic, more emotion. There is neither an iron chain of theology, nor the burden of ornaments. Among them, there is a clean and pure Ganges-Yamuna flow of Lokmanas. The greatest quality of folk songs is that they have easy naturalness and simplicity.
Writer – Sheryl Sharma, student of Indian folk history and literature. Attempted specifically towards Braj Bhasha literature.